Introduction: The government is one of the four elements of a state. No state can be a true statement without one of its elements. Again the government is classified into the following forms democracy, oligarchy, monarchy, republican, dictatorship etc. The democratic govt. is popularly known to all. It is a govt. with the consent of the majority.
It is a popular form of government. Here is the government, the representatives are elected by the direct votes of all classes of people. In such a form of the government, all citizens without any distinction between caste and creed have the rights to enjoy equal rights. Abraham Lincoln truly said, “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people.” The govt. claims to be a government of the people. The main task of this govt is to keep people under control.
Classifications: Democracy is of two classes, direct democracy, and indirect democracy. In the direct democratic gout, all the citizens can take an active or a direct part in the governance. They can participate in the administrative, judiciary and legislative functions. But in an indirect democratic govt. people take part in constitutional and administrative affairs through their elected representatives.
The concept of democracy: The concept of democracy came into being in Europe in the 18th century. The introduction of democracy began through the French and the American Revolution. Then it spread all over the world based on equal political and social rights. In the form of democratic government universal franchise is also entertained.
People can choose, select and elect their competent representatives at their suit will. The government is liable to people for their actions. Freedom of speech and freedom of the press have their great roles in a democratic govt. There are more political parties to form public opinion and to criticize the government openly.
Advantages: The advantages of the form of democratic govt. are that all are equal in the eye of law. Each and every citizen can participate in this government and express his/her opinions freely. All are equal in the democratic government. There is no distinction between rich and poor, men and women, religions and castes.
Everyone can participate. Hence J. S. Mills, a famous politician the best scientist said, “Democracy gives a teaching on the constitutional system.” In a democratic government, it needs no revolution or struggle. People can be politically conscious, responsible and dutiful under this form of government. The govt. cannot exercise its power over people whimsically. Considering the overall merits of democracy it is going to be popular all over the world gradually. It is such a govt. as differs from all other forms of govt.
Demerits: The elected representatives cannot use the public asset for private ends. But people are to suffer if their elected representatives are not competent. Some political scientists consider the democratic government as a government of the nonsense, fools and block-headed people. This form of government is to work based on public opinion.
If the elected representatives become selfish and do everything for their own selves neglecting the country and people, it may bring about serious harm to the nation and the land as well. The success of democracy depends on people’s consciousness, wisdom and education. The conscious and sagacious people can elect their representatives from among some political parties. Their party ‘spirit many a time brings disasters out of their dogmatism, blind support and superstitious beliefs.
In case of emergency, the elected representatives are to hold a discussion. The taking of slips in an emergency is delayed for holding such a discussion. The development work of a democratic government goes slowly. People being united or in league with an opposite political party can dethrone or topple the existing government down at any moment, as people are the source of power.
The long termed or large large-scale
Conclusion: Bangladesh is a democracy. But most Bangladeshis are illiterate, ignorant, block-headed and politically unconscious. So they should be imparted education, made conscious and responsible. Then a good democratic government will be possible here and people will be able to enjoy a true democratic right.